Controller PBN Training Requirements

This page details PBN information that is recommended for controllers.  Volume II of the PBN Manual (ICAO Doc 9613) lists the ATCo training requirements for each Navigation Specification and this section consolidates those lists.

In the PBN Manual Volume II, each chapter of Parts B and C (ICAO Doc 9613) details the implementation of a Navigation Specification.  Within the ANSP considerations of each chapter, the recommended minimum training requirements for both the pilots and the ATCos are laid out.

When pilots undergo Instrument Rating training with an Approved Training Organisation (ATO), the minimum training requirements as detailed in Doc 9613 will be covered in that training.  On successful completion of the training, the pilots will have their IR licences endorsed with PBN priveledges.  As of 25 August 2020, all Instrument Rated pilots must hold PBN priveledges.  There are two Navigation Specifications which require special authorisation, in addition to PBN priveldges, and they are RNP 0.3 for rotorcraft operators and RNP Authorisation Required Approach (RNP AR APCH).

For the controllers, the Navigation Common Core Content training requirements should cover the generic PBN training requirements.  Additional training at local level may be required to ensure ATCos full understand PBN and the influence they can have on the PBN operation.

The recommended PBN ATCo training requirements are captured in the tabs below.

In addition, in consultation with our stakeholders, the Agency has developed a generic flyer to highlight some PBN related issues that Air Traffic Controllers feel are important to operations.  This 'Need to Know/Nice to Know' flyer can be downloaded here.

This section will concentrate on the two dedicated Oceanic/Remote Continental navigation specifications: RNAV 10 and RNP 4.  These training requirements would also be applicable to RNP 2 and A-RNP if these specifications are enabled for oceanic operations.

Core training

  1. How area navigation systems work (in the context of this navigation specification):
  • Functional capabilities and limitations of this navigation specification
  • Accuracy, integrity, availability and continuity
  • GPS receiver, RAIM, FDE, and integrity alerts
  1. Flight plan requirements
  2. ATC procedures:
  • ATC contingency procedures
  • Separation minima
  • Mixed equipage environment (impact of manual VOR tuning)
  • Transition between different operating environments
  • Phraseology.

Training specific to this navigation specification

  1. Reporting of gross navigation errors.


 

Core training

  1. How area navigation systems work (in the context of this navigation specification):
  • Functional capabilities and limitations of this navigation specification
  • Accuracy, integrity, availability and continuity including on-board performance monitoring and alerting
  • GPS receiver, RAIM, FDE, and integrity alerts
  • Waypoint fly-by versus fly-over concept (and different turn performance)
  1. Flight plan requirements
  2. ATC procedures:
  • ATC contingency procedures
  • Separation minima
  • Mixed equipage environment (impact of manual VOR tuning)
  • Transition between different operating environments
  • Phraseology.

Training specific to this navigation specification

  1. For the application of 23/30 separation minima:
  • CPDLC communications
  • ADS-C system and simulation training
  • Effect of periodic reporting delay/failure on longitudinal separation

This section will concentrate on the continental domestic en-route navigation specifications: RNAV 5, RNAV 2, RNP 2.  A-RNP training requirements are covered in the Terminal (SID/STARs) tab.

Core training

  1. How area navigation systems work (in the context of this navigation specification):
  • Functional capabilities and limitations of this navigation specification
  • Accuracy, integrity, availability and continuity
  • GPS receiver, RAIM, FDE, and integrity alerts
  1. Flight plan requirements
  2. ATC procedures:
  • ATC contingency procedures
  • Separation minima
  • Mixed equipage environment (impact of manual VOR tuning)
  • Transition between different operating environments
  • Phraseology.

Core training

  1. How area navigation systems work (in the context of this navigation specification):
  • Functional capabilities and limitations of this navigation specification
  • Accuracy, integrity, availability and continuity
  • GPS receiver, RAIM, FDE and integrity alerts
  • Waypoint fly-by versus fly-over concept (and different turn performance)
  1. Flight plan requirements
  2. ATC procedures:
  • ATC contingency procedures
  • Separation minima
  • Mixed equipage environment (impact of manual VOR tuning)
  • Transition between different operating environments
  • Phraseology.

Training specific to this navigation specification

  1. RNAV STARs, SIDs:
  • Related control procedures
  • Radar vectoring techniques
  • Open and closed STARs
  • Altitude constraints
  • Descend/climb clearances
  1. RNP approach and related procedures
  2. RNAV 1 and RNAV 2 related phraseology
  3. Impact of requesting a change to routing during a procedure

Core training

  1. How area navigation systems work (in the context of this navigation specification):
  • Functional capabilities and limitations of this navigation specification
  • Accuracy, integrity, availability and continuity including on-board performance monitoring and alerting
  • GPS receiver, RAIM, fault detection and integrity alerts
  • Waypoint fly-by versus fly-over concept (and different turn performance)
  1. Flight plan requirements
  2. ATC procedures:
  • ATC contingency procedures
  • Separation minima
  • Mixed equipage environment (impact of manual VOR tuning)
  • Transition between different operating environments
  • Phraseology.

Training specific to this navigation specification

  1. RNP 2 ATS route control requirements (in either ATS surveillance or procedural control environments):
  • Descend/climb clearances
  • Route reporting points
  1. RNP 2 related phraseology
  2. Impact of requesting an in-flight change of route

The Navigation Specifications that can support SID/STARs are RNAV 1, RNP 1, A-RNP and RNP 0.3 for rotorcraft.  It should be noted that the navigation specifications that support the approach (RNP APCH and RNP AR APCH) can start from the Initial Approach Fix (IAF).

Core training

  1. How area navigation systems work (in the context of this navigation specification):
  • Functional capabilities and limitations of this navigation specification
  • Accuracy, integrity, availability and continuity
  • GPS receiver, RAIM, FDE and integrity alerts
  • Waypoint fly-by versus fly-over concept (and different turn performance)
  1. Flight plan requirements
  2. ATC procedures:
  • ATC contingency procedures
  • Separation minima
  • Mixed equipage environment (impact of manual VOR tuning)
  • Transition between different operating environments
  • Phraseology.

Training specific to this navigation specification

  1. RNAV STARs, SIDs:
  • Related control procedures
  • Radar vectoring techniques
  • Open and closed STARs
  • Altitude constraints
  • Descend/climb clearances
  1. RNP approach and related procedures
  2. RNAV 1 and RNAV 2 related phraseology
  3. Impact of requesting a change to routing during a procedure

Core training

  1. How area navigation systems work (in the context of this navigation specification):
  • Functional capabilities and limitations of this navigation specification
  • Accuracy, integrity, availability and continuity including on-board performance monitoring and alerting
  • GPS receiver, RAIM, FDE and integrity alerts
  • Waypoint fly-by versus fly-over concept (and different turn performance)
  1. Flight plan requirements
  2. ATC procedures:
  • ATC contingency procedures
  • Separation minima
  • Mixed equipage environment (impact of manual VOR tuning)
  • Transition between different operating environments
  • Phraseology.

Training specific to this navigation specification

  1. RNP 1 STARs, SIDs related control procedures:
  • Radar vectoring techniques (where appropriate)
  • Open and closed STARs
  • Altitude constraints
  • Descend/climb clearances
  1. RNP approach and related procedures
  2. RNP 1 related phraseology
  3. Impact of requesting a change to routing during a procedure.

Core training

  1. How area navigation systems work (in the context of this navigation specification) in achieving reliable, repeatable and predictable procedures:
  • Functional capabilities and limitations of this navigation specification
  • Accuracy, integrity, availability and continuity including on-board performance monitoring and alerting
  • Availability of ATS and infrastructure
  • GPS receiver, RAIM, FDE and integrity alerts
  • Leg transitions, relative turn performance of waypoint fly-by versus fly-over concept
  1. Flight plan requirements including the applicability of A-RNP to RNAV 1, RNAV 2, RNAV 5, RNP 2, RNP 1 and RNP APCH navigation application
  2. ATC procedures:
  • ATC contingency procedures
  • Separation minima
  • Mixed equipage environment (impact of manual VOR tuning)
  • Transition between different operating environments
  • Phraseology (consistency with PANS ATM)
  • ATC intervention considerations.

Training specific to this navigation specification

  1. Related control procedures:RF leg limitations including ground speed constraintsRNP approach and related procedures:
  • Approach minima
  • Potential negative impact of issuing an amended clearance for a procedure when the aircraft is already established on the procedure due to possible difficulty in complying with revised procedure requirements.  Sufficient time needs to be allowed for the crew to accomplish navigation system reprogramme requirements, e.g. a change to the en-route or runway transition
  1. RNP en route:
  • FRT as a computed turn by the aircraft versus a unique en-route path segment
  1. Parallel offsets.  RNP systems termination of offsets and return to original flight plan
  2. Lateral performance associated with route or procedure.

Core training

  1. How area navigation systems work (in the context of this navigation specification):
  • Functional capabilities and limitations of this navigation specification
  • Accuracy, integrity, availability and continuity including on-board performance monitoring and alerting
  • GPS receiver, RAIM, FDE and integrity alerts
  • Waypoint fly-by versus fly-over concept (and different turn performance)
  • Effect of interference on signal coverage
  • SBAS augmentation
  1. GNSS RNP capable systems
  2. Flight plan requirements
  3. ATC procedures:
  • ATC contingency procedures
  • Separation minima
  • Phraseology

Training specific to this navigation specification

  1. RNP 0.3 instrument flight procedures to specifically include the following rotorcraft operations:
  • Radar vectoring techniques (where appropriate)
  • Altitude constraints
  • Descend/climb clearances
  1. RNP approach and related procedures
  2. RNP 0.3 related phraseology
  3. Impact of requesting a change to routing during a procedure.

ATC should be familiar with RF leg benefits and their limitations and understand that this functionality is only applicable with RNP specifications supporting terminal operations and applied outside the Final Approach Fix.  RF legs applied inside the Final Approach or on the initial or intermediate parts of a Missed Approach will be part of a RNP AR APCH operation.

For procedures using RF legs, controllers shall be trained:

  • Not allocate a speed that exceeds a constraint associated with the (design) flyability of an RF leg.
  • Not issue a ‘Direct To’ clearance to a waypoint beginning an RF leg or a vector to intercept an RF leg.  This is because the navigation system will only sequence the RF leg when the aircraft is established on the inbound track to the RF initiation waypoint.

For completeness, the two approach specification recommended ATCo training elements are captured here.  It should be noted, however, the RNP Authorisation Required Approaches will have specific requirements on controller training which will be evolved during the Flight Safety Operational Assessment (FOSA).

Core training

  1. How area navigation systems work (in the context of this navigation specification):
  • Functional capabilities and limitations of this navigation specification
  • Accuracy, integrity, availability and continuity including on-board performance monitoring and alerting
  • GPS receiver, RAIM, FDE and integrity alerts
  • Waypoint fly-by versus fly-over concept (and different turn performance)
  • FAS Datablock (for LPV)
  • Difference between barometric and geometric approach slopes (for LPV)
  1. Flight plan requirements
  2. ATC procedures:
  • ATC contingency procedures
  • Separation minima
  • Mixed equipage environment
  • Transition between different operating environments
  • Phraseology.

Training specific to this navigation specification

  1. Related control procedures:
  • Radar vectoring techniques (where appropriate)
  1. RNP approach and related procedures
  • T and Y approaches
  • Approach minima
  1. Impact of requesting a change to routing during a procedure

Note: If RF is utilised in the initial or intermediate segments of the RNP APCH, then the controller should also be trained not to:

  • Allocate a speed that exceeds the published constraint for the RF leg
  • Issue a 'Direct To' to the waypoint at the start of the RF leg

Core training

  1. How RNP systems work (in the context of this navigation specification):
  • Functional capabilities and limitations of this navigation specification
  • Accuracy, integrity, availability and continuity and on-board performance monitoring and alerting
  • GPS receiver, RAIM, FDE and integrity alerts
  • Waypoint fly-by versus fly-over waypoints and their application to RNP AR operations (and different turn performance)
  • RF leg applications in RNP AR APCH design
  1. Flight plan requirements
  2. ATC procedures:
  • ATC contingency procedures
  • Separation minima
  • Mixed equipage environment
  • Transition between different operating environments
  • Phraseology.

Training specific to this navigation specification

  1. Related control procedures:
  • Vectoring techniques (where appropriate)

            - Limitations and prohibitions for vectoring to RF legs

            - Airspeed constraints

  1. RNP AR APCH procedures:
  • Approach minima
  • Additional requests for current barometric altimeter settings
  1. Impact of requesting a change to routing during a RNP AR procedure
  • When possible, once a flight begins a RNP AR procedure, the controller allows the flight crew to complete the procedure in its entirety without interruption
  • When necessary to vector a flight off a RNP AR DP, ATC shall not request the aircraft to resume the DP at a later point as the flight crew may not be able to determine a safe climb performance along the procedure's path.
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